The Protection of Civilians (PoC) refers to efforts that protect civilians from physical violence, secure their rights to access essential services and resources, and contribute to a secure, stable, and just environment for civilians over the long-term. PoC is a moral, political, legal, and strategic priority for all military operations. Communities on the ground and around the world expect uniformed personnel to protect the population; failure to do so jeopardizes the credibility and legitimacy of the operation and can undermine other objectives. The Protection of Civilians Military Reference Guide is primarily intended as a resource for military commanders and staffs who must consider PoC while conducting operations. Other interested readers may include international organizations, national militaries, training centers, and civilian and police officials who are also concerned with PoC.